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徽派建筑的建筑艺术风格与特点

来源:/news/430.html 发布日期:2022-01-06

徽派建筑的建筑艺术风格与特点
Architectural art style and characteristics of Hui Style Architecture
徽派建筑在总体布局上,依山就势,构思精巧,自然得体;在平面布局上规模灵活,变幻无穷;在空间结构和利用上,造型丰富,讲究韵律特色,在建筑雕刻艺术的综合运用上,融石雕、木雕、砖雕为一体,显得精致古朴,典雅自然。徽派建筑有着高超的建造技艺和浓厚的学问内涵以及地方特色,在其形成过程中受到独特的地理环境和人文观念的影响,显示出较鲜明的区域特性,从布局到色彩都给人一种较为统一的格调和风貌。
In terms of the overall layout, Hui style architecture is close to the mountain, with exquisite conception and natural propriety; In the plane layout, the scale is flexible and changeable; In terms of spatial structure and utilization, it has rich shapes and pays attention to rhythmic characteristics. In the comprehensive application of architectural carving art, it integrates stone carving, wood carving and brick carving, which looks exquisite, simple, elegant and natural. Hui style architecture has superb construction skills, strong cultural connotation and local characteristics. In the process of its formation, it is affected by the unique geographical environment and humanistic concept, showing distinctive regional characteristics. From layout to color, it gives people a more unified style and appearance.
徽派建筑的艺术风格:自然古朴,隐僻典雅。它不矫饰造作,师法自然,顺乎形势,不趋时势,不务时兴,笃守古制,信守传统,推崇儒教,兼蓄道、释,坚持宗族法规,崇奉风水,追求淳朴古素,所谓自然古朴;含隐蓄秀,凝重孤峭,典正雅致,庄重高洁,不染尘俗,所谓隐僻典雅。
The artistic style of Hui Style Architecture: natural, simple, secluded and elegant. It is not pretentious, imitates nature, conforms to the situation, does not follow the trend of the times, does not keep up with the times, adheres to the ancient system, adheres to the tradition, advocates Confucianism, accumulates Taoism and Buddhism, adheres to clan laws and regulations, worships Feng Shui, pursues simplicity and antiquity, so-called nature and antiquity; Implicit, elegant, dignified, solitary, elegant, solemn and noble, free from worldly customs, the so-called secluded and elegant.
徽派建筑特点:青砖黛瓦、高墙小窗、流檐翘角、雕梁花窗、飞檐出甍、回廊挂落。粉墙、青瓦、马头墙、砖木石雕以及层楼叠院、高脊飞檐、曲径回廊、亭台楼榭等的和谐组合,构成徽派建筑的基调。徽派古民居规模宏伟、结构合理、布局协调、风格清新典雅。
Hui style architecture features: blue bricks and black tiles, high walls and small windows, curved eaves, carved beam and flower windows, cornices and corridors. The harmonious combination of pink walls, green tiles, horse head walls, brick, wood and stone carvings, multi story courtyard, high ridge cornices, curved path corridors, pavilions and pavilions constitute the keynote of Hui style architecture. Hui Style ancient folk houses have magnificent scale, reasonable structure, coordinated layout and fresh and elegant style.
徽派建筑中民居典型的特点是:青砖黛瓦马头墙,回廊挂落花格窗。徽州民居的结构牢固,大多是砖墙、木梁架和方砖铺地。
The typical characteristics of folk houses in Hui style buildings are: green brick and black tile horse head wall, and falling flower lattice windows in the corridor. The structure of Huizhou Folk Houses is firm, most of which are paved with brick walls, wooden beams and square bricks.
徽州民居内部是以柱、枋、梁、檩、椽等构件组成的木结构建筑,梁托、瓜柱、叉手、雀替、斗栱等大都进行镂雕加工,装饰以漂亮的花纹、线脚。
The interior of Huizhou Folk Houses is a wood structure building composed of columns, braces, beams, purlins, rafters and other components. Most of the beam brackets, melon columns, forks, sparrows and Dougong are carved and decorated with beautiful patterns and moldings.
徽州民居的外观造型颇具特色,除一般中国古代建筑的低层、坡顶形式外,着重采用了马头山墙的建筑造型,将房屋两端的山墙升高超过屋面及屋脊,并以水平线条状的山墙檐收顶。为了避免山墙檐距屋面的高差过大,采取了向屋檐方向逐渐跌落的形式,既节约了材料,又使山墙高低错落,富于变化。
The appearance of Huizhou Folk Houses is quite unique. In addition to the low-rise and slope top forms of general ancient Chinese buildings, the architectural shape of Matou gable is emphatically adopted, the gables at both ends of the house are raised beyond the roof and ridge, and the roof is closed with horizontal linear gable eaves. In order to avoid the excessive height difference between the gable eaves and the roof, the form of gradually falling towards the eaves is adopted, which not only saves materials, but also makes the gable height staggered and full of changes.
古牌坊结构严谨、布局合理、规模宏大,每一块梁枋,每一件镶嵌都合乎力度,在建造上讲究选址、造型、雕刻、用料等。牌坊型制不一,有“楼脊式“,“冲天柱”式;有方形四柱、八柱,也有“一字型”单门和三门的;有遍饰雕刻、工致华丽,也有平琢浑磨、不事雕饰的,其排列有纵列七道、四道,
The structure of the ancient archway is rigorous, the layout is reasonable and the scale is large. Each beam and brace and each inlay are in line with the strength. In construction, we pay attention to site selection, modeling, carving and materials. There are different types of archways, including "ridge type" and "sky column" type; There are square four columns and eight columns, as well as "I-shaped" single door and three door ones; Some are decorated with carvings, which are exquisite and gorgeous, and others are flat cut and polished without carvings. They are arranged in seven or four rows,
也有三座横列一排。
There are also three in a row.
砖雕是徽州盛产质地坚细的青灰砖上经过精致的雕镂而形成的建筑装饰,广泛用于徽派风格的门楼、门套、门楣、屋檐、屋顶、屋瓴等处,使建筑物显得典雅、庄重。它是明清以来兴起的徽派建筑艺术的重要组成部份。砖雕有平雕、浮雕、立体雕刻,题材包括翎毛花卉、龙虎狮象、林园山水、戏剧人物等,具有浓郁的民间色彩。
Brick carving is an architectural decoration formed by exquisite carving on the fine grey bricks rich in Huizhou. It is widely used in the gatehouse, door pocket, door lintel, eaves, roof, roof and other places of Huizhou style, making the buildings elegant and solemn. It is an important part of Hui Style Architectural Art rising since the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Brick carvings include flat carvings, relief carvings and three-dimensional carvings. The themes include feather flowers, dragons, tigers and lions, forest landscape, dramatic characters, etc., with strong folk color.
岁月蹉跎,世事变迁,徽派建筑带着岁月见证的古意,带着深厚的民间艺术色彩,给后世以美的熏陶和启迪。
With the passage of time and the changes of the world, Huizhou architecture has the ancient meaning witnessed by years and the profound color of folk art, which has edified and inspired future generations with beauty.

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