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赣派建筑和徽派建筑有哪些相同点和不同点?

来源:/news/429.html 发布日期:2021-12-29

江西和安徽从地理上来说是邻居,因为离得近江西赣派建筑与安徽徽派建筑整体上可谓是大同小异。今天,大家就来具体了解一下江西赣派建筑与安徽徽派建筑的异同点。
Jiangxi and Anhui are neighbors geographically, because they are close to each other. Jiangxi Gan style buildings are similar to Anhui Hui style buildings on the whole. Today, lets specifically understand the similarities and differences between Jiangxi Gan style architecture and Anhui Hui style architecture.
首先,什么是赣派建筑?什么是徽派建筑?
First of all, what is Gan style architecture? What is Hui Style Architecture?
徽派建筑是古徽州府地区的建筑,是我国传统建筑主要流派之一。其建筑群主要分布于古徽州地区,就现代地里而言,应该在安徽省黄山市、宣城市绩溪县、江西省婺源县附近。
Hui style architecture is the architecture of ancient Huizhou Prefecture, and it is one of the main schools of traditional architecture in China. Its buildings are mainly distributed in ancient Huizhou area. In terms of modern land, it should be near Huangshan City, Xuancheng City, Jixi County and Wuyuan County, Jiangxi Province.
安徽徽派建筑有哪些特点呢?徽派古建筑以砖、木、石为原料,以木构架为主。梁架多用料硕大,且注重装饰。其横梁中部略微拱起,故民间俗称为“冬瓜梁”,两端雕出扁圆形(明代)或圆形(清代)花纹,中段常雕有多种图案,通体显得恢宏、华丽、壮美。立柱用料也颇粗大,上部稍细。古徽州对村落选址的地形﹑地貌﹑水流风向等因素都有周到的考虑,往往都是依山傍水,环境优美,布局合理,交通顺畅,建筑融汇于山水之间。
What are the characteristics of Anhui Hui Style Architecture? The ancient architecture of Hui style takes brick, wood and stone as raw materials and mainly uses wood frame. The beam frame is multi-purpose, with huge materials and pays attention to decoration. The middle of the crossbeam is slightly arched, so it is commonly known as "white gourd beam" among the people. Flat circular (Ming Dynasty) or circular (Qing Dynasty) patterns are carved at both ends. A variety of patterns are often carved in the middle, which makes the whole body look magnificent, gorgeous and magnificent. The material used for the column is also quite thick, and the upper part is slightly thin. Ancient Huizhou has considered the terrain, landform, water flow and wind direction of the village site selection. It is often close to mountains and rivers, with beautiful environment, reasonable layout, smooth traffic, and buildings integrated between mountains and rivers.
而赣派建筑是江右民系的传统建筑。其建筑群主要分布于江西省内。
Ganpai architecture is the traditional architecture of Jiangyou people. Its buildings are mainly distributed in Jiangxi Province.
江西赣派建筑又有哪些特点呢?赣派建筑布局简洁,朴实素雅,是具有浓厚地方特色的赣派民居建筑。外看,多为长方形平面,用空半砖墙围合,清一色的青砖灰瓦,高峻的马头墙,半掩半露的双披屋顶隐在重重叠叠的马头墙后面,马头墙造型丰富多样,翘首长空,既可防火,又可防风。入内,其格局多为二进三开间,一堂一厅,面阔三间,明间厅堂,次间臣室,左右对称。木构穿斗式梁架,并依使用目的之不同,前檐部常做成各式的轩,形制秀美且富于变化。卧室楼高一层半,下层居住,上半层放置什物。厅堂没有分层,显得高大宽敞,气势很是堂皇。室内地面,以长条青砖横向错缝铺砌。神龛设在厅堂宝壁两边侧门的上方。堂前均有较为狭小的天井,既从采光通风之用,又取四水归堂之意,无形中把人与天衔接起来。

What are the characteristics of Jiangxi Gan style architecture? The layout of Gan style buildings is simple, simple and elegant. They are Gan style residential buildings with strong local characteristics. From the outside, they are mostly rectangular planes, surrounded by empty half brick walls, with uniform green bricks and grey tiles, high horse head walls, and half covered and half exposed double draped roofs hidden behind the overlapping horse head walls. The horse head walls have rich and diverse shapes and look up into the sky, which can prevent fire and wind. Inside, the pattern is mostly two into three bays, one hall and one hall, with three wide faces, Ming hall and secondary minister rooms, symmetrical left and right. The wooden bucket type beam frame is used for different purposes. The front eaves are often made into various pavilions with beautiful and varied shapes. The bedroom building is one and a half floors high, the lower floor lives, and the upper half is filled with objects. The hall is not layered, it looks tall and spacious, and its momentum is very magnificent. The indoor ground is paved with long green bricks with transverse staggered joints. The shrine is located above the side doors on both sides of the hall wall. There are narrow patios in front of the hall, which not only serve for lighting and ventilation, but also take four water to return to the hall, virtually connecting people with heaven.

所以,赣派建筑和徽派建筑有哪些相同点?
So what are the similarities between Gan style architecture and Hui Style Architecture?
个人以为,两者的相同点都有飞檐的马头风火墙,内部结构也非常相似,有前后进,有天井,两侧有厢房,正厅前有门厅,大门外有照壁。
In my opinion, the similarities between the two are the horse head wind and fire wall with cornices, and the internal structure is also very similar. There are front and rear entrances, patios, wing rooms on both sides, a lobby in front of the main hall and a screen wall outside the gate.
那么,赣派建筑和徽派建筑具体有哪些区别呢?大致可以分为三点:
So, what are the differences between Gan style architecture and Hui Style Architecture? It can be roughly divided into three points:
1、建筑形式。平面布局基本相同,“四水归堂”是常规设置,所不同的是赣派建筑的“井”略微大些,赣派建筑基本都是一层,徽派建筑一般都是两层,这与地形宽裕的赣抚平原和用地局促的徽州六邑地形地貌有关。赣派建筑外墙为青砖马头墙,而徽派建筑一般都白璧马面墙。徽派白璧马头墙小于赣派建筑青砖马头墙。
1. Architectural form. The plane layout is basically the same. The "four water return hall" is a conventional setting. The difference is that the "well" of Gan style buildings is slightly larger. Gan style buildings are basically one floor and Hui style buildings are generally two floors, which is related to the terrain of GANFU PLAIN with abundant terrain and Liuyi in Huizhou with limited land. The exterior walls of Gan style buildings are green brick horse head walls, while Hui style buildings are generally white horse face walls. Hui Style White Bi horse head wall is smaller than Gan style green brick horse head wall.
2、年代历史。赣派建筑和徽派建筑从学问角度考证都与客家风水学问有关,江西是形势派风水学问的发祥地,因此可以考证赣派建筑年代上早于徽派建筑。但是,徽派建筑基于徽州学问的影响,徽州学问在明清时期发展很快,赣学问这一时期略显落后,建筑上不可避免受学问的影响。
2. Age history. From the perspective of culture, both Gan style architecture and Hui style architecture are related to Hakka feng shui culture. Jiangxi is the birthplace of situation style feng shui culture. Therefore, it can be verified that Gan style architecture is earlier than Hui style architecture. However, based on the influence of Huizhou culture, Huizhou culture developed rapidly in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, while Jiangxi culture was slightly backward in this period, and the architecture was inevitably affected by culture.
3、村落规划。赣派和徽派建筑都受形势派风水学问影响,开天门、闭地户、水口建筑等布局基本一致,都比较注意与环境融为一体的风水观,所不同的是赣派建筑村落一般将祠堂、戏台置于村落的地理中间位置,而徽派建筑则将其作为水口建筑置于村口。
3. Village planning. Both Gan school and Hui school buildings are influenced by the feng shui culture of the situation school. The layout of open Tianmen, closed land households and Shuikou buildings are basically the same. They all pay more attention to the Feng Shui concept of integrating with the environment. The difference is that Gan school architectural villages generally place ancestral halls and theatres in the middle of the village, while Hui school buildings place them at the entrance of the village as Shuikou buildings.
赣派建筑和徽派建筑有哪些典型代表呢?
What are the typical representatives of Gan style architecture and Hui Style Architecture?
徽派建筑的典型代表很多,广为人知的有县棠樾牌坊群、南屏古村、黟县西递、宏村多处古民居。
There are many typical representatives of Hui style architecture, such as Tangyue memorial archway group in County, Nanping ancient village, Xidi and Hongcun in Shexian county.
而赣派建筑代表性的村落有乐安流坑、吉安钓源、泰和爵誉、丰城白马寨、安义水南、赣县白鹭、铅山可口、贵溪上清、广昌驿前、宜黄棠阴等村镇。
The representative villages of Gan style architecture include Lean Liukeng, Jian Diaoyuan, Taihe juyu, Fengcheng Baima village, Anyi Shuinan, Ganxian egret, Qianshan delicious, Guixi Shangqing, Guangchang Yiqian, Yihuang Tangyin and other villages and towns.

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