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徽派建筑美在哪里?

来源:/news/428.html 发布日期:2021-12-24

徽州学问培养了徽州的建筑艺术,徽派建筑便是对徽州不同时期学问与艺术作风的诠释。历史沉蕴下的徽派建筑,似乎一幅绵亘的水墨长卷,展示着长久学问的魅力。“粉墙黛瓦马头墙,高墙深院小窗户,肥梁瘦柱内天井,肥水不流外人田。”这是一段徽州人概括徽州建筑特性的俗语,形象地提醒了徽派建筑的艺术特征。

Huizhou culture has cultivated Huizhou architectural art, and Huizhou architecture is the interpretation of Huizhou culture and artistic style in different periods. Hui Style Architecture under the historical accumulation seems to be a long scroll of ink and wash, showing the charm of long-term culture. "Pink wall, Dai wa horse head wall, high wall, deep courtyard, small windows, fat beams and thin columns, inner patio, fat water does not flow to outsiders." This is a common saying of Huizhou people summarizing the characteristics of Huizhou architecture, which vividly reminds the artistic characteristics of Huizhou architecture.

古人对徽州地貌形态有着这样的记叙:“东有鄣山之固,西有浙岭之塞,南有江滩之险,北有黄山之陒,即山为城,溪为隍。”正由于如此复杂的地势,徽派建筑构成了依山就势,傍水而居,自然得体的建筑规划。徽派建筑装饰巧思多样,千变万化;建筑雕琢外型丰厚,韵律调和;物体构造融会一体,工艺精致,作风品味俗气脱俗,具有非常高的装饰艺术性。在徽州人看来“山峦为溪水之骨架,溪水是村落之血脉”也推崇“学问礼教”,从而逐步构成了“理学文章山水幽”的共同人文建筑环境。总体来看,徽派建筑与自然融为一体,又融汇了民俗风情之精髓,徽派建筑共同的艺术魅力和学问底蕴使人们为之叹服,更惹起了各个范畴的关瞩目光,特别是服装设计范畴。
The ancients described the landform of Huizhou like this: "there is the solid of Zhangshan in the East, the fortress of Zheling in the west, the danger of river beach in the South and the Yi of Huangshan in the north, that is, the mountain is the city and the stream is the God." Because of such a complex terrain, Hui style buildings constitute a natural and appropriate architectural planning based on the mountain and living near the water. Hui style architectural decoration has various ingenious ideas and is ever-changing; The architecture is carved with rich appearance and harmonious rhythm; The object structure is integrated, the process is exquisite, the style is tasteful, tacky and refined, and has a very high decorative artistry. In the view of Huizhou people, "mountains are the skeleton of streams, and streams are the blood of villages" also advocates "cultural ethics", thus gradually forming a common humanistic architectural environment of "Neo Confucianism articles, quiet mountains and rivers". On the whole, Huizhou architecture is integrated with nature and the essence of folk customs. The common artistic charm and cultural heritage of Huizhou architecture make people admire it and attract the attention of various fields, especially the field of fashion design.
徽派建筑的装饰题材普遍、纹样多种多样,有的具象、有的写意,应有尽有,无所不有。徽州的雕琢匠师汲取了中国传统的民族学问将其与徽商审美心理相分离,加以艺术的发明,再用精巧的雕琢技艺表现出来,每一块都反映出徽州人民的学问内涵以及他们对美妙生活的追求与祈愿。其中徽派建筑中包含着大量的云纹,在徽派建筑中表示不祥如意的纹样是每家每户都必有的雕琢装饰,每块纹样都能独立成画,寓意内涵、精摹细琢、精巧绝伦。蝙蝠云纹在徽州传统建筑装饰中也是常见的题材。例如:“平步青云”纹样由香炉和祥云组成,寓意步步高升,“万福流云”纹样由祥云、蝙蝠或寿字组成,寓意福气无疆,万事如意。
The decorative themes of Hui style buildings are universal and the patterns are diverse, some concrete, some freehand, everything. The carving craftsmen in Huizhou have absorbed the traditional Chinese national culture, separated it from the aesthetic psychology of Huizhou merchants, made artistic inventions, and then expressed them with exquisite carving skills. Each piece reflects the cultural connotation of Huizhou people and their pursuit and wish for a better life. Among them, Hui style buildings contain a large number of cloud patterns. In Hui style buildings, patterns that express bad luck are necessary for every family. Each pattern can be independently painted, implying connotation, fine imitation and exquisite. Bat cloud pattern is also a common theme in Huizhou traditional architectural decoration. For example, the pattern of "step up and clear the clouds" is composed of incense burners and auspicious clouds, which means rising step by step, and the pattern of "Wanfu Liuyun" is composed of auspicious clouds, bats or longevity words, which means that there is no frontier for good luck and everything is going well.
龙纹的运用常与云纹、回纹等分离,寓意祥瑞。在徽派建筑纹样中龙的形象也多以祈愿的方式呈现,与对应的事物纹样组合表现相应的美妙愿望。徽派建筑中的“云纹”雕琢图案展示着徽派建筑的神韵与内涵。各类艺术都是融汇相通的,与徽派纹样对徽派建筑的表现一样,服装的主题与图案也是展示服装艺术的重要元素。不同的服装主题会对应以不同的图案来表现服装的内涵与情感。人们关于服饰上更好的追求使得服饰也在随着时期的开展不时地产生变化,关于服饰的请求也不只仅在其功用性上,人们关于审美也有了一定的见地。
The use of dragon patterns is often separated from cloud patterns and palindromes, implying auspiciousness. In the Huizhou architectural patterns, the image of the dragon is also mostly presented in the form of prayer, and the combination with the corresponding things patterns shows the corresponding wonderful wishes. The carved patterns of "cloud pattern" in Huizhou architecture show the charm and connotation of Huizhou architecture. All kinds of arts are integrated and interlinked. Like the performance of Huizhou patterns on Huizhou architecture, the theme and pattern of clothing are also important elements to display clothing art. Different clothing themes will show the connotation and emotion of clothing with different patterns. Peoples pursuit of better clothing makes clothing change from time to time with the development of the period. The request for clothing is not only in its function, but also in aesthetics.
徽派建筑中的“云纹”雕琢图案与中国传统服装纹样有着相同的主题与纹样。寓意不祥是中国几千年历史传播下来亘古不变的主题,不祥纹样是人们生活中不可或缺的装饰,而云纹样作为自古以来代表不祥的意味自然就是最常呈现的纹样,在当时的传统服装上经常刺绣、滚边或印染的方式呈现。在徽派建筑中的“云纹”雕琢图案中,纹样多以边饰或填补留白的雕琢方式呈现,用以从旁相衬主要雕琢纹样;而在服装中几何纹装饰纹样也常呈现在领口、袖口、裙边、裤脚或偏襟的装饰上,衬托服装上的主要纹饰。以这种纹样的表现办法来看,建筑艺术与服装艺术是互相贯穿的。
The carved pattern of "cloud pattern" in Huizhou architecture has the same theme and pattern as that of traditional Chinese clothing. Ominous implication is an eternal theme in Chinas thousands of years of history. Ominous patterns are an indispensable decoration in peoples life. Cloud patterns, as a representative of ominous meaning since ancient times, are naturally the most often presented patterns. They were often presented in the way of embroidery, piping or printing and dyeing on traditional clothes at that time. In the "cloud pattern" carving patterns in Hui architecture, the patterns are mostly presented in the way of edge decoration or filling in the blank, which is used to contrast the main carving patterns from the side; In clothing, geometric decorative patterns often appear in the decoration of neckline, cuff, skirt, trouser leg or skirt, setting off the main patterns on clothing. In this way of expression, architectural art and clothing art run through each other.
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